Last Class Lecture Notes

Notes from Final Lecture

We survived the 1st Term!!!

Prof Currie Review:

Ecosystems Approach
Sustainability concept of human impacts (value of ecosystem services)
Ecology as a science (odum book)
Biotic Hierarchy (heat exchange, photosynthesis, energy flux, biomes)

Energy Life and Transformation:
Solar Radition, long wave/short wave
Trophic Levels
Oxidation
Autotrophs vs heterotrophs
Ecology is a study of life in its environment
Consumption and Predation

Plant Physiology, energetics, water relations
Photosynthesis: C3, C4 CAM (difference in light/dark reactions, closure of stomates)

Terrestrial Production and Carbon Uptake (GPP, NPP, NEP)
Global Terrestrial Carbon Uptake and Release
Flux Towers

Climate Glaciation and Stability
Phanerozoic, Cenozoic, Pleistocene
Global Temps and CO2 levels
Milankovitch Cycles

Vegetation Biomes
Global atmospheric circulation (Hadley cells)
Annual and seasonal variation determines soil and vegetation
Whitiker Diagram
Precipitation levels have significant effect (20 inches)

Deposition, Weathering and Acid Base Chemistry
Carbonic Cycle
Ocean acidification

Nutrient Flows from Terrestrial to Aquatic Ecosystems
Human activities introduce reactive N into ecosystem (fertilizer)
Nitrification and denitrification
Nutrient Cycling in terrestrial ecosystems
Nitrogen saturation
Watershed concept (quantify inputs/outputs)

Land Use and Land Cover Change
Patches and Edge Effect
Different species perceive the environment at different scales
Regreening in certain parts of the US

Human Systems: Agriculture
Multiple Revolutions (green, genetic, etc)
Human population growth drives carrying capacity and vice versa

Global Systems
Global Carbon Cycling
Stabilization wedges
Pools are very large, but were in greater balance 50 years ago

Prof. Allen

The Origins of Life
Life’s major innovations (advances of cells, photosynthesis)
Link understanding of species formation through the tree of life
Darwin and Natural selection mechanism
Inclusive Fitness: Jump into the river to save 2 brothers or 8 cousins

Population Growth
Exponential vs S shaped growth with carrying capacity

Population Dynamics and Age Structure
Lx, mx, sx, etc
Populations have spatial structure
Source and sink meta-population dynamics (corridors)

Species Interactions
Competition: how do competing species co-exist
Niche Concept: Resource utilization spectra
Lotka Voltera Equation explains how 2 species co-exist

Consumer Resource Interactions:
Predation is powerful agent of natural selection
Predation causes complex reactions with an ecosystem

Community Structure:
Cross system subsidies
Ties together populations within communities

Lake Ecosystems
Stratification and turnover
Eutrophication (P is primary driver of eutrophication in freshwater/Canada study)

River Ecosystems
Downstream influences
Degrade vs aggrade when channelized

Global Water
Water Cycle (pathways that water follow)
Rivers physically respond to flows and there is a move to restore natural flows
How Much water does nature vs people need?

Global Biodiversity:
The number of species is a function of the area of habitat surveyed
Actual number of species is a balance between colonization and extinction

Biodiversity Crisis
Overexploitation, invasive species, habitat loss are primary causes of species loss
Protected areas are 12% of the land surface.

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