Lecture 25: December 14

Course Overview and Final Review Notes (key concepts to know)

  • Sustainability, full world concepts of human impacts
  • Biotic hierarchy (biosphere down to organism level); landscapes and biomes
  • Radiations and energy: energy transformations, redox reactions
    • respiration is a loss of energy - does not move up to the next trophic level
  • trophic pyramid, consumption, predation
  • heat exchange (energy exchanges at the leaf level, as well as more broadly with the biosphere - shortwave and longwave radiation)
  • C3, C4, CAM photosynthesis (light and dark reactions, ADP and NADP are energy carriers)
  • NPP, NEP, NEE, NBP (NECB)
  • Climate and stability - Phanerozoic (590 MYA), Cenozoic (65 MYA), Pleistocene (1.4 MYA) - long-term temperature and CO2 trends; 120,000 years of glacial periods
  • Vegetation biomes - atmospheric circulation, landscape and local patterns
    • climate controls vegetation and soil development
    • Whittaker diagram - biomes by temperature and precipitation
    • Walter diagram - biomes by seasonality
  • Acid-base chemistry, deposition and weathering, carbonate complex, N and S emissions
  • N cascade to aquatic systems (human activities convert to reactive form)
    • Nitrification and denitrification - nitrate is more mobile than ammonium
  • N saturation in terrestrial ecosystems
  • LULCC, landscape ecology, patches and adjacency, scales, historical trajectories
  • Agriculture - revolutions, fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation
    • what is the driver - human population growth or agricultural growth? positive feedback
  • Global Carbon cycling
  • Theories of the origin of life, innovations (cell formations, advances, functionality - crisis and response)
  • Formation of species leads to the radiation of the tree of life
  • Natural selection mechanism for evolutionary change
    • Genetic variation - sources and maintenance
    • Tradeoffs, fitness, and inclusive fitness
  • Population growth equations, carrying capacity, population regulation, time lags and population oscillations, r- and K-selection
  • Population dynamics and age structure
    • Sx, Lx, Mx; estimates of future populations, PVA, spatial structure of populations, metapopulation dynamics
  • Mutualism, commensalism
  • Competition/coexistence, niche, resource utilization spectra/overlap, how competing species coexist (Lotka-Volterra)
  • Consumer-resource interactions
  • Community structure - food web analysis, trophic cascades, cross-system subsidies, community succession
  • Lake origins, stratification/turnover, eutrophication, food webs, dead zones/nutrient export from watersheds
  • Geomorphology/hydrology of river ecosystems, river continuum, biological setting - energy sources and food webs, human influence
  • Global hydrologic cycle, human water use and needs, natural water needs, natural flow regime, dams and altered land use
  • Global biodiversity - number of species is function of habitat area, colonization and extinction balance, 6 causes of biodiversity crisis
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