Ricklefs Chapter 16

Competition

Exploitative competition indirect competition through mutual effects on shared resources

Interference Competition direct competition in which competitors aggressively defend resources—there may be a fine line between the two kinds of competition

Allelopathy chemical competition in terrestrial plants

Consumers can influence competition outcomes

If consumers feed upon a particular species, they can create room for other species that use the same resources as their prey to take hold

Apparent competition may resemble exploitative or interference competition, but in fact represents another factor. Examples include: sage shrubs giving shelter to herbivores on grass, native populations not being able to tolerate introduced pathogens, and the example I know best-garlic mustard, which not only uses allelopathy on other plants, but is not often eaten by deer or any other herbivores.

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